International governance issues on climate engineering (2020)

In 2020, IRGC produced “International Governance Issues on Climate Engineering”, a study conducted for the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), International Affairs Division. The four chapters, authored by experts in the field, draw together information and recommendations relevant to international policymaking in this area of growing importance to mitigating the effects of climate change. “Policy decisions must strive to be based on evidence and a shared, robust understanding of the potential opportunities and risks, across disciplinary and applied perspectives.”

Some climate engineering techniques are being developed to remove CO2 from the atmosphere (carbon dioxide removal, CDR). Some other technologies (grouped under the term of solar radiation modification, SRM) would artificially cool the planet and could reduce some symptoms and consequences of climate change.

Human-caused climate change poses severe risks to people and ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable among them. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) indicates in its latest reports that, in order to comply with the global warming goals provided for by the Paris Agreement (keep warming well under 2°C above pre-industrial levels), there is a need to reach global net-zero CO2 emissions in the second half of this century, and carbon removal will be needed. Climate engineering could be part of international climate policy, but it is necessary to clearly distinguish between CDR and SRM for their very different possible roles in combating climate change. Meaningful steps may need to be taken soon to lay a foundation for a decision process regarding research, policy, regulation and possible use.

  • Chapter one of the report (written by Paul Rouse, C2G) provides an overview of the two classes of emerging climate engineering technologies—CDR and SRM—regarding their potential to contribute to climate change reduction, and the various specific techniques’ readiness level, cost and risks.
  • Chapter two (written by Anna-Maria Hubert, University of Calgary) surveys legal norms and existing international agreements relevant to the governance of climate engineering technologies.
  • Chapter three (Matthias Honegger, IASS) identifies several risks and trade-offs and offers approaches that could be pursued.
  • Chapter four (Jesse Reynolds, UCLA) evaluates possible policy options and approaches for international governance of climate engineering.

Four cross-cutting themes emerge from this study:

  • Noting the pervasive scientific uncertainty that characterizes both CDR and SRM, adaptive approaches are needed to reducing uncertainty and deploying the most appropriate technologies and governance mechanisms. One needs to be very prudent and avoid lock-ins.
  • Separating CDR and SRM in policy discussion and in communication with the public might help reduce ambiguity
  • Existing international arrangements lean toward or even in some cases create an obligation to engage in further research and cooperation.
  • Both top-down and bottom-up approaches to the national and international regulation of CDR and SRM are needed.

The recommendations for governance are:

  • To distinguish between CDR and SRM as well as among the diverse CDR techniques in their additional dedicated governance
  • To accelerate authoritative, comprehensive and international scientific assessment
  • To encourage the research, development, and responsible use of some CDR techniques
  • To help build capacity for evaluating CDR and SRM in some of those countries that lack the resources to do so
  • To facilitate the elaboration and the implementation of non-state governance; and
  • To explore potential further governance of SRM while remaining agnostic concerning its ultimate use.


The 2020 report was released on 18 June 2020, GENeva Environment Network:

Link to Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN):

  • International Affairs:
  • Climate:
  • Negative Emission Technologies (NETs): On 2 September 2020, soon after the publication of IRGC’s report, the “Federal Council approved a report on the importance of negative CO2 emissions for Switzerland’s future climate policy. Permanently removing CO2 from the atmosphere (i.e. achieving ‘negative emissions’) requires special technologies, which are not yet fully available. The report concludes that negative emissions are essential to meeting long-term climate targets. It recommends that the Confederation take action now to create the conditions needed for the large-scale development of these technologies, which remove CO2 and store it permanently“. Further, “at international level, the Confederation should examine how research and innovation cooperation in the field of NETs can be supported. In addition, discussions about NET knowledge and international governance should be further advanced within the framework of international conventions such as the Paris Agreement and the United Nations Environment Programme.”
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